Archive for the ‘Genealogy DNA’ Category
Obviously Genealogy DNA is a search term often used to find this site. Now we want to show you what you can learn here on GenealogyDNA.com. Many people are wanting to discover their connection to their ancestors as well as living relatives. This is becoming easier and easier with modern advances in genealogical DNA testing. Read on to find out how to unlock your genetic makeup as seen on TV “Who Do You Think You Are.”
The latest theory is that your body only uses 5% of the DNA codes it has available to it. While the entire human DNA sequences have been identified, scientists are still unsure what each molecule does and exactly what each one means. These are the same scientists that first labeled the DNA sequences that can be identified as the genetic markers of a person as junk DNA.
Short Tandem Repeats in Genealogy DNA:
What is true is those scientists are still working on unraveling the mysteries locked up in our DNA. They have learned over the years how to recognize certain sequences that are now used to trace a person’s genetic history. These are the short tandem repeats (STRs) in a persons DNA. These can be identified in every person and used to trace back and connect them with their relatives, past and present.
In each person’s DNA, there are only 4 different amino acids. It is the way they are structured or assembled that decides not only their function, but how we can read them. They are named G, C, T, and A. It is the order in which they appear in the short tandem repeats that makes it possible to connect samples to their genetic relatives. Each man passes down to his son an exact copy of his Y-DNA. The mother passes her mtDNA to both her sons and daughters. These genetic markers are exact copies of the parents and are what is used to identify the ancestral heritage lines of a person’s family tree.
Polymorphism in Genealogy DNA:
Over time there is what is referred to as a polymorphism. This is where one of the short tandem repeats has a modification to it. This is when just one of the short tandem repeats is replaced with a new set of molecules. This can be just one of the amino acids or both of them. This is a very rare occurrence, but does exist, especially in the Y-DNA sequences.
When this occurs, a new linage is then branched off. This is how the male linage has become so exact in the information the scientists can provide about the sample they test. Unfortunately the mtDNA has this polymorphism even less frequent then the Y-DNA. This is why at the present time there is less detailed information available about a woman’s linage, there is less specific information being provided by the sample results. With fewer variations, the path is very straight so to say.
To give you an example of how straight the paths are is the number 37. That is the number of women for whom all present day humans can trace back their mtDNA too. Just a few years ago it was thought that there were only three. As time and research progresses, more information will become available for the identification of Genealogy DNA.
To say the least you will want to bookmark this site and visit often because whatever the newest developments are in genetic genealogy testing we will be right there to report these advances to our readers. If you want to have some fun and get in the system of testing your own DNA you can do it right here by ordering a simple DNA Testing Kit online that is so easy to do that you will wonder why you have not done it before. There is no blood test needed, just use the simple paddle device scraper that you run up and down on the inner cheek area of your mouth and seal the scraped cells and paddle up in the provided envelope and return it to the lab for your DNA test results.
This is the same sort of DNA test kit as you have seen recently on the popular NBC television series “Who Do You Think You Are”
Go ahead and order your own Genealogy DNA test kit right HERE: Family Tree DNA
Join the hundreds of thousands of other people that are in the Genealogy DNA database.
- DNA Testing for Genealogy is the Greatest Discovery (genealogydna.com)
- Family Finder DNA Test (genealogydna.com)
- Genealogy DNA Testing (genealogydna.com)
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There are 60 types of cells in a human body and the DNA present in each type of cell helps in DNA testing for Genealogy. DNA is the abbreviation of Deoxyribonucleic acid and is present in the nucleus of the cell. It has two parts: X chromosome and Y chromosome. In the outer part of the nucleus, you will find X chromosome while Y chromosome is present in the inner part of the nucleus. Father and mother, both have to contribute for preparing DNA of child. This means the y chromosomes are transferred from father and X chromosomes are transferred from mother of the child.
There are a lot of technical and other improvements going on in case of DNA testing which is helping in solving different cases. For example, DNA helps in identifying the father and mother of the child and to solve murder cases. Not only this, DNA test is also included in Genealogy research.
Genealogy research in becoming more and more famous and there are large number of people who are taking it as a hobby. But it is such a complicated and vast research that even expert genealogists get frustrated. Researchers have to do a lot of paper work which is time consuming. Sometimes the researched documents are damaged or the handwriting becomes illegible. In DNA test you can get the results in just 15 minutes without any compromise with the quality and authenticity.
If you want to know about the maternal background of the person, go for mitochondrial testing. After marriage the surname of the girl usually changes due to which she lost her maternal lines. DNA testing for Genealogy is the most popular process to know about the maternal background. Experts are trying to make the concept of DNA Genealogy easier to help people find the maternal background. Tests are done in the lab and the samples are compared with the database of mtDNA samples.
Not only this, the best part is that the samples of mtDNA remain unchanged. Even mtDNA that is present in the cells of the body remains unchanged. So, you can find out your maternal background at any day of your life. Now women can even trace their origin 150,000 years ago. No doubt, everybody says that the maternal linage is eve but, there were many other women. It was the linage of eve which survived.
In genetic Genealogy, experts mostly use Y chromosome to get the results. Using Y chromosome you can even get to know that the person is related to the decreased one or not. As Y chromosome is passed on from father to son, experts can easily trace the paternal background of the person.
If the two persons have same surname, experts can even find out the relation between the two using DNA Genealogy. DNA testing for Genealogy has even got the results about animals and their extension. They have even found the ways to know about the fist animal to start the breed. DNA Genealogy is the greatest discovery ever done in the history of medical science.
- DNA Testing Kits: It Just Keeps Getting Easier (dnakits.org)
- Genealogy DNA Surname Projects
- Dads and DNA (dnanews.org)
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Starting with yourself and working backwards is the proper method to do genealogy research. All experts agree on this.
If you attempt to start somewhere in the middle, say like with some famous person and then trying to find if you are related to them, will likely end in frustration.
The same methodology is best for Genealogy DNA testing purposes. You start by submitting your own DNA sample to the testing laboratory and then comparing the results with hundreds of thousands of other individuals that have also submitted their samples.
By comparing these lab results and by also using the data that has been collected by scientists and archaeologists over a great many years we can now go further back in time to some of the earliest days of human migration out of Africa. Certain genetic patterns have evolved that specify certain groups of people of a common haplotype and when your DNA code shows a match, then you can be certain that your early ancestors were within that group.
Now what about Pre-Historical times? There are still ways to look at fossil and archaeological evidence for certain types of human kind and occasionally some rare human tissue is discovered that can help fill in more rungs on the DNA ladder of history that might also come down to your own code.
We call your attention to this 23andMe video about the earliest of time and Genealogy DNA pre-history.
The whole idea of the DNA testing labs is that it may additionally show to the extent to which two persons are related. As an example, some DNA experiences reveal that the 2 people are real brothers, while another report can show that they’re cousins or distant relatives.
It is not necessary that two individuals having the same surname have to be actually related. With the help of DNA testing one may discover out if any two people or descendants truly come from the equivalent ancestor. These are tests that are vital for proving your ancestry, and also to explain the biological specimen that may be common with some ancestor.
We welcome your comments and questions. If you have a good Genealogy DNA story to tell we would be pleased to publish it here for you. Just use the Contact form at the top to submit.
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We here at Genealogy DNA are always looking for DNA Success Stories (read previous post), and this one comes from the ISOGG Newsletter.
Family Finder Success for the Family of North Dakota’s First Democrat Senator
by Joe Fox
For years, I’ve been trying to trace the ancestry of my all-female line great grandmother, Anne Euphemia Roach. All I had was some 1860 census data for Washington, DC, that seemed to identify her family with Edward as the father but gave only the first name for the mother. I had posted this information on Rootsweb but had gotten no replies.
Then, a month ago, I was contacted by a projected 5th cousin in Family Finder. The match was 11.5 cM on the longest block but we had several surnames in common. Turns out that the match is probably in our Cooper ancestry back in Ireland before 1745 – at least 6 generations back. His Coopers had come over later but there were given names and wives surnames that matched.
But, in addition, he had already noted that he had several matches with people who gave Roach as one of their family surnames – even though he had not yet identified a Roach ancestor for himself. So he had been tracing the Roach family back in St. Mary’s County, MD, and in Washington, DC, and was able to give me the name of Edward Roach’s wife, which was Catherine Manning, from Loudoun County, VA. A little snooping around on Google led me to a posting on Ancestry.com that described what appeared to be the same family.
This, in turn led me to look up William Nathaniel Roach, US Senator from North Dakota from 1893 to 1899, who turned out to be Anne Euphemia Roach’s brother. I went back to the Ancestry.com posting, contacted the sender, and now have access to the Manning family tree – which is quite impressive. I’ve also taken my all-female line back another 2 generations to Euphemia Lacy Manning of Paeonian Springs, Loudoun County, VA.
The lesson I get from this is that it pays to follow up on some of these more remote surname connections. No telling what might develop. I also learned why my great aunt, who was my mother’s family genealogist, had failed to document her own mother’s family tree. It seems that William Nathaniel Roach, her uncle, was once the cashier of a bank in Virginia whose funds he was diverting into the stock market for himself. He was rescued by family connections who paid off his losses and he then moved out to North Dakota to start a new life – successful enough to become the first Democrat elected senator from that state.
(Used under CreativeCommons license)
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We have discussed Y-DNA testing and mtDNA testing many times here on GenealogyDNA.com. As described, both of those do a good job of returning exact DNA trails to your two outermost branches of the family tree, meaning the all male father’s, father and on back to earliest times. The mtDNA tests the matrilineal line meaning the mother’s mothers female or umbilical line.
So what about all the branches on the tree in between? That is where Autosomal DNA testing comes in. It is also where a better examination of the possibility of having Native American Ancestry is used.
From the recent ISOGG Newsletter, vol.3, no.7 a good description and a success story shows how the combined testing of all parts of the subject DNA can lead to answers to these questions. As for autosomal testing it is suggested that the Native American possibilities is most effective out to the great grandparents range, or possibly a little further. It will not be of much use back several centuries, or as the Director of ISOGG, Katherine Borges, stated “If you’re looking to uncover Pocahontas’ DNA in your tree, its not going to show.”
The following story offered by Ms. Borges describes a perfect example of how autosomal testing can help in such a quest.
DNA Success Stories
Searching for Native American Ancestry
by Katherine Borges
One fateful day back in the year 2000, I asked my father-in-law what he knew about his
ancestry. His father was 100% Portuguese and his mother was a mix of Swiss-French on her
father’s side and Heinz 57 American on her mother’s side. And then the words that
propelled me on this search: “…and I think I may have a Native American ancestor.”
As exciting as that statement might be, I never found it on paper. Perhaps the reason
why is because there never was one and his DNA results appear to confirm that. But this
journey wasn’t without tantalizing tidbits along the way. Like the photo of his great-grandmother
where she had a Native American look about her. We are brickwalled at her parents so you
never know, it was a clue that might have panned out. But then there’s the DNA…
In 2004, I thought that if I tested my son, that it would show whether he had Native American
ancestry so I ordered an autosomal DNA test for him through a company called “DNA Print”.
His results came back as 92% Caucasian and 8% East Asian. “EAST ASIAN??? My son
doesn’t have any Asian ancestry.” I said. My friend, Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabón gently assured
me that the East Asian was really Native American in my son; its just that the company didn’t
have his type of NA DNA in their database so he matched the next closest type. While Ana’s
explanation made sense, the test didn’t quite give me the clear cut answer I was hoping for.
The next test I tried for the search was a single marker test for D9S919 offered by Family
Tree DNA in the Fall of 2008. Since the company already had his DNA on file, I had the test
performed on my son and the results were once again, inconclusive.
One year later, 23andMe came out with their Relative Finder autosomal DNA test so the very
first one I ordered was on my father-in-law. His results came back 100% European, primarily
Southern European which fits with his 50% Portuguese ancestry. Alas, it appeared that
the lack of finding a Native American paper trail in his family tree had now been firmly
corroborated through DNA.
However, this didn’t turn out to be the end of the search. During this time, mtDNA results
came in for my mother-in-law’s brother and sister as Haplogroup C – a Native American
haplogroup! I also tested one of their female first cousins through the National Geographic
Genographic Project and she came back as Haplogroup A – another Native American haplogroup!
One month later, both my son and his great-aunt tested through 23andMe and both had Native
American autosomal DNA results through the feature, Native American Ancestry Finder. My
mother-in-law’s ancestry is 3/4 Mexican and 1/4 Austrian so the results do fit with their Mexican
So this journey through different types of DNA testing led to success in finding Native American
ancestry, even though it wasn’t where I initially thought it might have originated. And this can serve
as a cautionary tale that just one test might not provide the answer, but don’t give up! You
never know what’s just around the corner to give you the answer that you’re searching for.
Copyright 2010 – International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG).
(Used with permission under Creative Commons Licensing, all credit to ISOGG.)
As this story shows there are many possibilities or ways to prove native ancestry but it still takes a combination of genealogical detective work and the various types of DNA test results to help verify it.
The best way to find out is to jump in and get tested. As millions of more people become tested for this type of genealogy DNA “and” genealogy paperwork research is compared, the better the over all chances of finding those missing bits and pieces of data that might show that you were here before Christoper Columbus.
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There has been much talk about a family finder DNA test and the results of said test on the internet and in genealogy circles. This new test was created to help individuals gain the knowledge of who they are related to in the easiest and simplest manner.
The test itself involves the identification of 22 autosomal chromosomes that will be used to match up unknown family members so a connection can be made. This is the minimal level of matching chromosomes that is needed to establish a relationship between two individuals.
The power of this connection is enough for a person to correctly identify all of their great grandparent’s offspring and descendants. This is the connection of 5 generations across a family tree that can now be properly identified. This is accomplished with the use of both mtDNA and Y-DNA results.
The family members that can now be properly and correctly identifies include grandparents and their siblings, first, second, third, fourth and fifth cousins, along with aunts and uncles.
When this test is done at Family Tree, not only can matches be identified but when the matches are in their data base, email contact and address can be shared so a permanent physical connection can be established.
If a person wishes, they can download the data from any of the matches found on Family Tree from previously tested individuals so they can make their own analysis.
This new test came available for all to use on February 16, 2010. The company Family Tree is the one conducting this set of test and is presently charging $289 per test that they conduct.
The Family Finder DNA Test is the latest and currently the best way to start discovering who you are related to. The choice is your if you wish to know or not.
Order the Family Finder test by clicking this link: Family Tree DNA
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Genealogical DNA Testing
We call your attention to some of the articles and videos on the web that we feel are relevant to what we do here which is to bring you news and information about Genealogy DNA testing.
DNA Testing for Genealogy is one of the most intriguing and amazing issues being addressed in the context of modern day research on family tree and ancestry revelation. DNA plays a key role in uniting families, people and individual entities all over the world.
Genealogical DNA Testing Around the Web
Genealogy DNA Testing is carried out to reveal the genealogical information which leads any person to the roots of his or her lineage. The importance of DNA Testing for Genealogy is constantly being realized and recognized which is getting reflected in the widespread testing facilities offered by numerous labs all over the world and especially in US.
Check out some relevant articles and videos from around the web:
Genetic DNA testing are done with several purpose and uses in individuals but all of these provide accurate results conclusive of establishing paternity, maternity, genealogy ancestry and possible DNA health problems. Share and Enjoy: …
Publish Date: 10/14/2010 4:44
FOX News Alabama’s famed newshound Jeh Jeh Pruitt traveled from his home in Birmingham to Phoenix, Arizona to capture the latest wave in DNA testing, the DNA Fingerprint Test. The first thing you should know is it’s not a fingerprint. Here’s everythi…
Genealogical DNA Testing in the News
The discovery of DNA is considered one of the most important events of the 20th century and the study of DNA continues to provide assistance in a number of ways including medicine, forensics and genealogy. It was the topic of a recent lecture on the …
overgroundonline.com Expert interviews from Who Do You Think You Are Live 2010, the UK’s largest family history exhibition
DYS464X Test: This is an advanced test of DTS464, a fast-moving multi-copy DNA marker. It could be called a “quazi-SNP” test and it has value for exploring both genealogy and anthropology. Factoids: This is a lighthearted “cocktail …
Publish Date: 10/10/2010 18:10
skip to main | skip to sidebar. JewishGen Blog: A Blog about Jewish Genealogy …. 2010 IAJGS Conference News · Success Stories · JewishGen News · Volunteer Profiles … DNA Testing · Dutch Jewry · Family Search · FootNote · Geni · Holocaust Research Project · IAJGS · International Survey of Jewish Monuments · Israel Genealogical Society · Italian Jewish Genealogy · JBlog Central · Jewish Belfast · Jewish Genealogical Society France · Jewish Genealogical Society of …
Publish Date: 10/14/2010 9:59
Ann Hart has written aa book titled, How to Open DNA-Driven Genealogy Reporting & Interpreting Businesses – Applying Your Communications Skills to Popular Health or Ancestry Issues in the News. In the book, author Ann Hart suggests “You …
Publish Date: 09/19/2010 16:01
DNA and link to genealogyThe Downey PatriotWHITTIER – Sandra Ruch, a genealogist educated in history and biology, will speak on “DNA – What It All Means,” at the Whittier Area Genealogical Society on … genealogy – Google News Genealogy …
Publish Date: 06/04/2010 11:02
Keep Us Posted About Genealogical DNA Testing
Readers, if you know of any local Genealogy DNA events in your area, please let us know and we will consider helping you to get the message out.
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DNA Testing for Genealogy is one of the much discussed topics in the field of genealogy nowadays. DNA Testing for Genealogy is also referred to as ‘genetic genealogy’. Genealogical DNA testing is carried out in order to determine the intensity of genetic relationship between individuals.
DNA Testing for Genealogy is extremely advantageous as it involves DNA comparison from different people in order to find out common ancestors or homelands.
“Check out some videos on DNA Testing for Genealogy“
Editor Allison Stacy shares her first foray into genetic genealogy. Learn more about DNA and genealogy at www.familytreemagazine.com
Genealogy is one of the fastest growing hobbies in America. Despite the breakdown of many social and racial barriers, people are more interested than ever in their ethnic heritage. But as Lauren Garber explains, not all types of genealogical research…
Interview about Acenstry by DNA, the company DNA Solutions offers this ancestry charts on their website. www.dnasolutions.com.au DNA Solutions has presence in over 40 countries.
“Here are some blog posts from around the web that discuss DNA Testing for Genealogy”
DNA testing has been getting their share of popularity these days, especially for people who want to discover who their ancestors are and where they come from.
Publish Date: 10/08/2010 15:22
Your Family Tree – What to Do When You Hit an Ancestor Brick Wall (0); Writing a Family History – Questions to Ask Your Grandparents (0); Why You Should Use DNA Testing For Ancestry Research (0); Why Everyone Should Have A Genealogy …
Publish Date: 10/05/2010 0:00
Genetic genealogy is a very recent concept and requires much more research and study. DNA Testing for Genealogy is thus an intriguing subject that dwells in the hearts of innumerable people.
“What’s in it for me” can be answered by checking out Family Tree DNA
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When it comes to DNA testing, genealogy and medical testing are not the same. Both sciences are advancing all the time, but their approach and what the scientists are looking for are vastly different. For this reason, before you have your DNA tested, be sure you know why you want this procedure done.
The testing of a person’s DNA for genealogy purposes involves the identification of nucleotides and where they are located on the sample DNA strand. This identification process, when looked at as a whole, can tell the examiner many things about the samples genetic ancestral past.
In the Y-DNA samples that are examined, the order and composition of the identified markers is how it is determined what family line the sample comes from. This DNA strand is passed on from father to son and is a continuous marker of the family lineage. A scientist can compare two different samples and can determine if they are ancestrally linked genetically.
This same type of matching up of like samples can be done for the female DNA strand or the mtDNA. By identifying matching sequences in the sample, an ancestral match can be found.
Neither of these tests will give a person any medical information. The reason is because of what the scientists are looking for. There is some association between haplogroupgs and diseases or certain characteristics like longevity of life. This is only because further testing has already been completed. This includes the association of particular markers that are missing or present from a DNA strand and disease.
For this reason, DNA testing, genealogy, and medical testing are different and the results from one cannot be used for the other, in most cases.
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With the assistance of DNA markers, genealogy tracing of a person’s ancestral past can be accomplished. This can be done by the comparison of short tandem sections of DNA strands of two or more samples. These strands are the genetic markers that prove scientifically who we are related to.
The reason these tandem pairs are used is the rarity of a mutation occurring for people that are related. In most cases, when a mutation occurs there is an addition or subtraction of just one repeating code. The rarity of this mutation occurring is 1 in every 500 generations for a single marker.
With an increase in markers that are observed comes the likely increase of a mutation being observed. When analysts observe the Y-DNA strands for comparison, 21 markers are noticed. The increase in the number of markers that are observed come the likelihood of mutation occurring. With these 21 markers, the odds of a mutation is 1 in every 24 generations.
With mtDNA, up to 65 different markers can be observed. What is known is that the more markers that are being looked for in the comparison, the accuracy of the results increase.
The greatest degree of accuracy is the closest relationship between two samples. This is the relationship between parent and child. With the advancements in modern testing techniques, the results are now 99.999% accurate.
Genealogists use this same data to determine which Haplogroup a sample is from. This is possible because of all the known results from past DNA markers. Genealogy has matured into a respected science over the years, and these results can be relied on for finding out where our ancestors came from.
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The mitochondrial DNA genealogy is the study of a person’s mother’s family line of maternal ancestors. This DNA is passed down from mother to each of her children exactly as she has it, with no mutations, except in the very rare instances.
Because of the traditions in our society of the wife taking her husband’s last name, a surname genealogy trace of the female line of the family tree is more difficult. On the flip side, since this DNA strand is more stable than the Y DNA, more conclusive results can be determined for the testing of it.
The mt-DNA is sometimes referred to as the Full Genomic Sequence (FGS). Since this DNA changes or mutates so rarely and slowly over time, a perfect match to an ancestor can be found who lived several hundred years ago.
The mtDNA of a person is not located in the nucleus of the sample cell but in the cytoplasm. This is the cellular material that is passed down from generation to generation. For those that wish to test this strand of DNA, they must be aware of one fact. The males receive this strand from their mothers, but that is where it ends.
Males pass on only the Y DNA chromosome. Because of this, a male has no genetic marker from their grandfather’s on their mother’s side. For this part of a family tree to be traced, a sample from a close relative, like a male sibling of the mother, would need to be obtained.
For this reason, the old saying that sons were the only carriers of the family blood line is more accurately stated as the only ones passing down the family DNA line. The mitochondrial DNA genealogy is only for determining the mother’s side of the family from child to female.
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The DNA genealogical testing that is being conducted is producing valuable data for not only the present generation to know, but also future generations to rely on. This is so a family tree can be identified and relatives can be located for the purpose of knowing who you are related to.
The study of DNA and its nucleotides for genealogy is the study of who we are related to and not for the search of genetic diseases. There is testing for medical purposes, but there are different sets of tests that must be conducted for that purpose.
The DNA testing for genealogy has already shown some startling results. One of these examples that made headlines a few years back is that it is possible for 16 million men to have the same Y DNA chromosome as Genghis Khan. It was known that he did have many children and, by some estimates, was 800,000 times more prolific than the average man. Because of this, about 8% of the men in Asia are of his ancestry, and 0.5% of the world’s population. These descendants came from approximately 12,000 offspring and rape was the typical form of inception he used.
A single ancestor is difficult to trace. What is more common is identify a SNP that is a marker for a specific population. This is how scientists are identifying who has European ancestry and African ancestry. The greatest challenge is separating the vast mixture that has occurred over time in the world’s population.
To help decipher this mixture, the Admixture test has been developed. While it is still in its infancy, the results are promising on determining a person’s ancestor if their haplogroups are distant enough to be distinguishable.
With the increased use of DNA genealogical testing, more knowledge will be attained about our past for future generations to learn from.
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DNA testing and genealogy results go hand in hand when a person is in search of their ancestral past. Medical information can also be obtained from DNA testing, but the way the results are analyzed is vastly different. For this reason, you must know what your intentions are before the tests are conducted.
There are specialists in the genealogy field that do nothing but analyze the results from samples. Just like with medical analysts, they know this craft and only this specialty.
In the different Y-DNA and mtDNA strands, the medical specialists are looking for specific omissions or additions of specific genes that might be present. The genealogy specialist is looking for patterns in the DNA sequencing. These patterns are what identify the samples to which genetic family line they follow. These patterns are distinctive and are present in every sample. This includes both Y-DNA and mtDNA samples.
When studying the different samples, the analyst will be looking for the mother genetic line when the mtDNA is analyzed and the father’s genetic line from the Y-DNA. What specifically are being looked for are repeated sets of nucleotides. These patterns that are present in every sample are how they will be categorized and placed within a Haplogroup.
The reason this type of analysis can be done is because every mother passes down the mtDNA she was give by her mother to her children, which is unchanged. For the father’s lineage, the Y-DNA is passed down from father to son only. This too, is unchanged and the reason it can be traced.
This is why a male sample can trace both lines of their ancestral past but a female can’t. This is also the reason a child’s grandfather on their mother’s side can not be traced back unless a male sibling of the mother is tested.
This is the basics of DNA testing and genealogy results that can be produced from every sample.
Click this link for more information: DNA Testing
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A DNA genealogy database is a depository of results that is filled with a wealth of information about our ancestral past. While each sample and its results are from just one person, by grouping them all together from a region tells the history of the people that came from there.
The largest data base of known results today is the Sorenson database. This is from the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation which is a non-profit organization. Their goal is to establish the largest and most complete genetic DNA database and genealogical information in the world.
This project sprouted in 1999 with a conversation between BYU Professor Scott Woodward and the philanthropist James Sorenson. Thus, the name of the data base was given the financial backers name.
In the past 11 years, over 100,000 samples of DNA have been collected and analyzed. This collection has resulted in a four-generation pedigree chart. The samples that have been donated have originated in more than 100 different countries around the world.
Both the Y-DNA and mtDNA results are included in this vast database. Both are available for genealogists to trace their family heritage.
Research at the foundation is not just on genetic DNA, but also has branched out into autosomal DNA. This is specifically to identify the genetic percentage of a sample’s DNA to a geographical region or continent.
Participation in the Sorenson project is completely voluntary. By adding your DNA to this existing data base, you and anyone else can use the information to learn about their ancestral past. The greater number of samples that the DNA genealogy database acquires, the more complete all of our genetic history will be.
This service formerly was free however as of last year they now charge the normal rates for testing kits. You may order a testing kit from Family Tree DNA by clicking HERE
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With Y DNA genealogy testing, a male can find out his father’s line of the family. This is because only men have the Y chromosome. The testing on this short chromosome is the Y STR test. This is helpful in discovering the past since this is passed down from father to son.
The STR is a segment of the DNA in the Y chromosome in the region that is considered Junk. The letters STR stand for short tandem repeats. The number of times a segment repeats itself is called the allele. This number is distinctive within a population which leads to surname lineage.
There are over 100 different markers in the Y DNA chromosome, but the typical one tested is the 10-67 STR marker. This identifies the haplotype that the sample belongs to. Within this testing the SNPs are notices. These are the single nucleotide polymorphism. These are observed for any changes and help identify the Haplogroup a sample is from. The mutation rate of the SNP is very low. For this reason, it is the ideal candidate for mapping a family tree.
Before a sample is tested, the number of markers to be identified should be chosen. Some only test for 12 markers, while others test for 67. For any surname project, at least 25 markers should be tested. The greater the number of markers that are identified, the more conclusive the results will be.
When a mutation occurs in a SNP, more than 1% of the population must have this same mutation for the SNP to be considered useful. If your SNP mutation is in less than 1%, then it is a personal SNP and is distinctive to your family tree.
The Y DNA genealogy testing of the SNP and the STR is the only way to determine the male ancestral line. The greater the number of markers are identified, the more accurate the results.